Dietary Patterns in Adults from an Adriatic Island of Croatia and their Associations with Metabolic Syndrome and its components
Adriatic islanders have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) although they have traditionally practiced an active lifestyle and adhered to a Mediterranean diet. We performed a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns in a sample of 1442 adults from the island of Hvar, and determined whether MetS and its components: waist-circumference, serum triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol, and blood pressure, were related to an altered pattern of the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Our study showed that dietary patterns in this population have diversified from the traditional diet. Principal component analysis identified three major patterns. The meat, alcohol, and fish pattern (MAFp), sweets, grains, and fats pattern (SGFp), and an olive-oil, vegetables, and fruits pattern (OVFp) explained 30.6% of total dietary variance. The MAFp associated significantly with MetS (p=0.027) and high plasma glucose (p=0.006).