Characteristics of Stroke in Young Adults in Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina
The aim of the study was to analyze stroke in young adults in Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. From January 2001 to December 2005, 3864 patients with first-ever stroke were admitted at the Department of Neurology Tuzla. A retrospective analysis of risk factors, stroke types, severity and one month outcome in all young adults (18 - 45 years of age) with first-ever stroke was carried out. Out of total, there were 154 (4%) young adults with stroke. Mean age was 38.8±5.7 years and 47% were women. The leading risk factors were smoking (56%) and hypertension (45%). Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was more frequent in young adults compared with older patients (>45 years of age) (22% vs. 3.5%, p<0.0001), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was similar in both groups (16.9% vs. 15.8%, p=0.7), but ischemic stroke (IS) was predominant stroke type in the older group (61% vs. 74%, p=0.0004). Young adults had more frequent lacunar stroke (26.6% vs. 16.1%, p=0.01) and stroke due to other etiology (8.5% vs. 1.8%, p=0.0004) than stroke patients over 45 years of age. Stroke severity at admission was lower in young adults than in older patients (p<0.0001), as well as mortality at one month (11% vs. 30%, p<0.0001). Favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≤2) had 71% of young adults compared with only 53% of patients in the older group (p=0.0003). Stroke in young adults in Tuzla Canton is rare. Risk factors profile, stroke types, severity and outcome at one month in young adults are different from those in older patients.